Annuals: Plants that bloom, produce seed, and die during the same season.

Biennials: Plants that need two seasons to get to full maturity.

Sown in early summer in nursery beds, and planted out in there final quarters in Oct / Nov.

Blind: A plant or shoot that fails to produce flowers or leaves.

Crown: The bud-like centre of plants such as Paeony, Strawberry or Rhubarb or the top of root-stock of hardy herbaceous plants.

Disbudding: The removal of the superfluous flower-buds that form below a crown bud allows the plant’s energy to go into a single flower e.g. Chrysanthemums.

F1 hybrids: Mostly used to refer to annual and vegetable cultivars produced by crossing two stable seed lines that give rise to uniform progeny.

F2 hybrids: Plants grown from F, hybrids are called F2, hybrids and display much greater variation than their parents.

Generic hybrids: Plants derived from crosses between two or more genera, indicated by an x before the composite genus name.

Hardy Annual: Is a plant that passes through all stages of growth in the open without the need for protection.

Half-Hardy Annuals: Plants that, in their early stages of growth, need protection prior to planting out.

Humus: Decayed vegetable matter.

Lateral: A secondary shoot that develops on a main branch.

Loam: A type of soil/compost produced from turf that has been stacked and allowed to decay over a period of approximately one year.

Mulch: A layer of manure, lawn cuttings, or bark shreddings laid around trees and plants to conserve moisture in the surrounding soil.

Offset: Small bulbs attached to parent bulbs or small rooted pieces of hardy plants that are generally detached for propagation.

Perennnials: are plants that continue to live and increase in the open for several years.

Phototropism: Is when a plant/s tends to lean towards a light source.

This is brought about by plant cells that contain hormones called auxins.

auxins accumulate on the shaded side of a plant and cause cell elongation, this cell elongation effectively pushes the plant stem over towards the brighter light source.

Subsoil: The soil lying below that which is cultivated i.e. the topsoil.

Suckers: Useless shoots that form on the stock of a tree/shrub that has been budded/grafted.

Roses; plum and lilac tend to throw suckers freely and should be cut back to origin/source.

Rose suckers: are thorny, and normally have seven lighter coloured leaflets whereas a true rose leaf has five leaflets.

Tilth: Is the state/texture of soil that has been broken down to make it suitable for sowing or planting.

Tap-root: Is the main root of a tree or plant

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