Common name: Rose
Roses are divided into several categories, for example; Hybrid Teas, Floribundas, Shrub, Climbers and Ramblers to name a few.
A few of the essentials they need to survive are;
- An open sunny site, although a few will tolerate partial shade.
Not too exposed a site, high winds can cause wind rock thus loosening the roots.
- Loamy soil containing plenty of manure for water retention.
- Good drainage, they resent water logged soil.
They are tolerant of lime, but do better in a slightly acid soil with pH. of 6.5.
- Ensure rose beds do not become over compacted, regularly loosen soil with a border fork, working in a granular/powder fertiliser (to recommended dosage) as you proceed.
- The beds should be kept free of weeds.
- Plants should be kept well watered in dry spells, and the soil surface mulched to reduce the effects of drought.
- Excess buds should be removed when the buds are small.
With hybrid teas, any group of buds forming below the terminal (crown) bud should be removed.
- Dead head as soon as flowers have faded.
Cut back to an outward facing bud to encourage further flushes of flowers, unless a crop of hips is required for autumn colour.
- In spring, apply a mulch and a top-dressing of Sulphate of Potash at a rate of 30gms (1oz) per sq. metre.
Feed regularly, particularly when in full bloom to encourage another flush of flowers.
Discontinue feeding in September to allow wood to ripen up before winter.
Place seeds taken the previous year into a refrigerator for three to four weeks to stratify.
Sow the seeds in modules or trays filled with a proprietary seed-sowing compost and leave in a cold frame.
Germination can take up to a year.
Species roses will come true from seed.
Hard prune newly planted, or old neglected plants, and moderately prune established bush roses.
Do not prune ramblers and weeping standards.
When pruning, make a gently sloping cut with sharp secateurs about 6mm (1/4”) above an outward facing bud or leaf scar.
After pruning, tidy the beds and boost growth by applying a rose feed as per the manufactures instructions, and apply a 50-75mm(2”-3”) deep mulch of rotted manure or garden compost.
Most roses produce their flowers on current year growth, but true Ramblers, some Specie, Old, and Modern roses grow on previous years growth, so it is essential you know which are which before pruning.
Roses that grow on current years growth can be pruned when the plants are completely dormant, or just starting into growth in the spring
Sometimes in exposed areas it is advisable to prune back by a third in early autumn then finish off in early spring.
Roses that flower on the previous season’s growth should be pruned just after flowering.
Newly planted plants should be pruned hard back in their first spring.
Specie and old shrub roses require little pruning except to remove soft tips and straggly growth.
Plant out pot-grown roses.
Onwards commence making regular preventative applications of a combined pest and disease spray, to prevent major outbreaks of pests and diseases.
Don't spray when pollinating insects are at work, e.g. bees and hoverflies.
Cut back suckers that spring from the rootstock and sap the strength from the plant/s, cut them back flush with the roots or stem.
Keep beds clear of weeds by careful hoeing.
Apply a dressing of rose or general fertiliser to boost growth, and to encourage second flush of flowers.
Be on guard for signs of pests and diseases, treat plants if symptoms appear.
Feed and deadhead plants to encourage further flowering.
Spray plants to control black spot.
Propagate by means of heel cuttings or layering.
Commercially, most modern roses are grafted or budded on to a chosen rootstock roses.
However they will grow equally as well on the roots of hardwood, semi-ripe and layered cuttings.
- Rambler, Miniature and Weeping shrub roses are best layered.
- Shrub, Floribunda and Climbers are best from cuttings.
Select strong, firm non-flowering shoots approx 250-300mm (10"-12") long, cut them off close to the stem of the parent plant to include part of the stem (a heel).
Trim off excess heel (tail) and soft top-growth, dip the cutting into hormone-rooting gel or powder, and insert into pots of sandy compost then place in a cold frame to root.
Alternatively stand them upright 150-250mm (6"-10") deep in sand-lined drills in a nursery bed to root.
The cuttings should have rooted by spring and can be moved the following autumn.
Select flexible shoots, dig a 150mm (6") deep hole with a hand trowel, peg down the shoot after slicing into the stem for 100mm (4") with a sharp knife, backfill the hole, leaving the tip of shoot exposed.
In heavy ground place a handful of sharp sand in the bottom of the hole prior to backfilling.
Prepare the planting bed at least one month prior to planting out by digging in copious amounts of well-rotted manure or compost.
Lighten heavy clay soils by digging in rotting straw, or farmyard manure.
Collect ripe hips and extract the seeds, and mix them with moist compost or vermiculite in a plastic bag and store at 21 °C (70°F) for two to three months.
Prune rambling rose varieties when they have finished flowering
They should be hard pruned to maintain a tidy and prolific habit.
Untie the old, flowered shoots and lay them out on the ground like spokes of a wheel to make pruning easier.
Wear a stout pair of gardening gloves when handling ramblers.
Prune the old flowered shoots to ground level.
Consider using the resultant prunings as hardwood cuttings.
If new growth has been poor, retain a proportion of old shoots.
Alternatively, cut back to new growth growing out low down on an old stem.
Securely tie in shoots to supporting pole or wires using strong garden string or proprietary plastic ties.
Space out the stems evenly to achieve better flower cover next summer.
Where new stem growth exceeds the height of supporting pillar or pole, don't be tempted to cut it back, instead, loop the tops and tie them down to provide a colourful head next year.
Dead head fading blooms, and supress weeds by hoeing or applying a suitable herbicide.
Watch out for signs of black spot disease and apply a systemic fungicide promptly if symptoms appear.
All infected prunings and fallen leaves should be collected up and burned.
Clear budded rootstock of suckering shoots rising from the roots or standard stems, these can usually be recognized by their smaller paler leaves.
Plant out at any time between now and April providing weather and soil conditions are suitable.
A guide to planting distances between plants is as follows;
- Miniatures 150-200mm (6”-9”) apart.
- Hybrids and Floribundas 600-900mm (2-3ft) apart.
- Standards 900mm (3ft) apart.
- Shrubs 1200-1500mm (4-5ft) apart.
- Climbers 2000mm (7ft) apart.
- Excavate the hole approx 300mm deep (1ft)
- Trim and shorten the plant roots.
- Position the plant by spreading the roots well over the base of the hole, ensuring that the union of the stock and scion (crown) is just below soil level.
- Backfill with a mixture of one handful of bonemeal to a two gallon bucket of peat/compost, ensuring the compost gets between the roots.
- Finally; firm the plant in by treading in the compost around the plant, then top off with garden soil to natural ground level.
- With Standards set a stake in the hole prior to planting ensuring that it will be buried at least 400-500mm deep (15”-18”) after backfilling.
- Tie in with a rubber tree ties.
The stake should be long enough to reach the top of the flower stem.
- With Climbers and Ramblers tie in to suspended wires, trellis or pergola posts.
Ensure newly planted roses have not suffered from wind-rock damage, firm in as necessary.
- Cut back bush roses to prevent wind rock damage to roots during wet and windy weather.
Cut out weak and spindly shoots, and then shorten all remaining branches by about one third of their length.
- Ensure that Standards are securely tied to stakes.
Position proprietary ties just below the head of the branches and successive ones approx 300mm (12”) and 500mm (18”) from the ground.
- Finish the autumn pruning of bush roses by cutting stems back by one-third to a half.
- Pick up all foliage and dispose of it, then spray the plant and surrounding soil with a tar based wash.
This not only removes and kills overwintering aphid eggs, but it will also help reduce outbreaks of black spot and rust next year.