Plants that bloom, produce seed, and die during the same season.


Plants that need two seasons to get to full maturity.

Sown in early summer in nursery beds, and planted out in there final quarters in Oct / Nov.


A plant or shoot that fails to produce flowers or leaves.


The bud-like centre of plants such as Paeony, Strawberry or Rhubarb or the top of root-stock of hardy herbaceous plants.


The removal of the superfluous flower-buds that form below a crown bud allows the plant’s energy to go into a single flower e.g. Chrysanthemums.

F1 hybrids:

Mostly used to refer to annual and vegetable cultivars produced by crossing two stable seed lines that give rise to uniform progeny.

F2 hybrids:

Plants grown from F, hybrids are called F2, hybrids and display much greater variation than their parents.

Generic hybrids:

Plants derived from crosses between two or more genera, indicated by an x before the composite genus name.

Hardy Annual:

Is a plant that passes through all stages of growth in the open without the need for protection.

Half-Hardy Annuals:

Plants that, in their early stages of growth, need protection prior to planting out.


Decayed vegetable matter.


A secondary shoot that develops on a main branch.


A type of soil/compost produced from turf that has been stacked and allowed to decay over a period of approximately one year.


A layer of manure, lawn cuttings, or bark shreddings laid around trees and plants to conserve moisture in the surrounding soil.


Small bulbs attached to parent bulbs or small rooted pieces of hardy plants that are generally detached for propagation.


Plants that continue to live and increase in the open for several years.


Is when a plant/s tends to lean towards a light source.

This is brought about by plant cells that contain hormones called auxins.

auxins accumulate on the shaded side of a plant and cause cell elongation, this cell elongation effectively pushes the plant stem over towards the brighter light source.


The soil lying below that which is cultivated i.e. the topsoil.


Useless shoots that form on the stock of a tree/shrub that has been budded/grafted.

Roses; plum and lilac tend to throw suckers freely and should be cut back to origin/source.

Rose suckers: are thorny, and normally have seven lighter coloured leaflets whereas a true rose leaf has five leaflets.


Is the state/texture of soil that has been broken down to make it suitable for sowing or planting.


The main root of a tree or plant.

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